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Iranian handcraft

iranian handicrafts

Handicrafts in Iran

Handicrafts represent the industry and art of the ancestors and show the taste and art of the people of each country. In the past, handicrafts have been active as a full-fledged phenomenon in every era. In the days when the machine did not exist and even in the era when its presence was not widespread today, it was the industry that supported all the talents and creations of human construction. That is why today, by looking at the handicrafts of each nation and tribe, it is possible to understand at what stage that artisan was.

The talent and creative spirit and initiative of artisans and their interest in producing works of art and taste has caused our country to have a special and privileged position in the production of handicraft products from the distant past to the present and to enjoy a world-wide reputation. .

The studies of famous researchers and Iranologists such as (Professor Pope), (Gershman), “Schmid”, “Henry René Dalmani”, etc., and the detailed analyzes they have made of Iranian handicrafts show exceptional values ​​and special status. This is the original and valuable art and craft of our country.

In the last decades of the seventh century AD, ‌ Iranians accepted Islam as a superior religion. This event caused the original artistic and cultural themes of Iran to be combined with high Islamic values ​​and Iranian handicrafts with a richer and more popular content than before, even in the field of architecture and tiling, to achieve significant growth and prosperity.

Today, however, Iranian handicrafts, despite the many ups and downs and even due to the unkindness that has passed in some eras. It has been able to be considered as one of the most valuable applied arts of the society and not only from cultural aspects but also from economic and social aspects, it has attracted the respect, attention and attention of the world. So that many experts consider Iran as one of the three important poles of handicrafts in Asia and the world and in terms of diversity may be at the top of all countries.

Iranian handcraft

About Iranian handicrafts

According to the above definition and other definitions provided for handicrafts, the following characteristics can be considered for handmade products:

1 – Performing part of the basic stages of production, by hand and tools and hand tools, to produce each Handmade products go through several stages, but it is not necessary to do all these steps by hand, tools and hand tools, and if only part of the basic production steps are done in this way, the product is produced according to the items mentioned in the definition. It is considered a handicraft.

2- The effective and creative presence of human beings in the production and shaping of manufactured products and the possibility of creating variety and implementing different designs in the manufacturing stage of such products.

3- Supplying most of the raw materials used from domestic sources.

4 – Having a cultural burden (using original, indigenous and traditional designs).

5 – Lack of similarity and similarity of products with each other.

6 – No need for large investments compared to other industries.

7 – Having a lot of added value compared to other industries.

8 – Ability to create and develop in different areas (city, village and even in nomadic communities).

9 – Ability to transfer experiences, secrets and production techniques, breast to breast or according to the method of teacher and student

Iranian handcraft

Classification of handicrafts

In the field of handicrafts classification, it should be said that this classification can be done in different ways, including based on raw materials used or the method and method of making it. در اینجا طبقه بندی انجام شده توسط کارشناسان سازمان صنایع دستی ایران که به طور عمده بر مبنای روش و تکنیک ساخت این گونه محصولات به عمل آمده است، ذکر می گردد:

1- بافته های داری: محصولاتی که به کمک دارهای افقی یا عمودی مستقر در The earth is produced at the time of weaving, it is considered to have weaves such as carpets, kilims, zillows and the like.

2- Hand weaving: (Traditional textile): Products that are produced with the help of simple and traditional weaving machines (special machine for weaving jajim, two-piece machine, four-piece machine and hand jacquard), are considered hand-made, such as jajim, gold, cashmere ، شال و …

One of the characteristics of this field of handicrafts is that first of all, the three stages of weaving, making openings, weaving and bookbinding (it is a metal tool, with a handle similar to a comb that weavers hold while weaving the fabric and twist the threads to What is woven should be joined together and tightened.) It is done with the movements of the hands and feet. Man is effective and creative in production.

3- Knitting: all kinds of artifacts that are produced with the help of desire, hooks and the like and with natural fibers, are considered as part of knitting, such as gloves, socks, hats, scarves, etc.

4- Surface: (Rudozi): All artifacts that are created by sewing traditional patterns on patterns without patterns or pulling a part of yarn and fabric, are in the group of “Rudozi” or “Surface” . Nzyrsvzn embroidery, embroidery, filigree, Goes embroidery, passementerie, Pateh Embroidered …

5. traditional print: All textiles that by brush, stamp and so painted and accept our role as the traditional print It counts like a batik and a bat print.

6- Felt : The types of artifacts that are prepared by kneading due to the conflict and compaction of wool and fluff in suitable technical conditions are part of the felt group. Such as felt hat, felt coat, undergarment felt and paddy felt.

7- PotteryAnd ceramics: Products that are made of clay using rosewood, as well as mud from quartz stone and kaolin soil, with the help of pottery hands and wheels, and then baked, are called pottery and ceramics.

To complete the made objects, according to tradition, paintings, carvings or reliefs are created on them, and a suitable glaze is used to cover the surface of the objects. The products produced by this group include all kinds of pitchers and glasses for tableware, vases, etc.

8- Glassmaking : Products that are obtained by forming molten minerals such as silica and shards of glass, which are a combination of the two, using the blowing method by a special tube, and by using hand tools, including pliers, scissors, etc. It is called handmade glass, which includes complementary and decorative steps, such as painting and carving.

9- Production of leather and leather products: Products that are produced using traditional tanned leather and leather, such as fur, leather hats, lighters, leather complementary products (such as combining leather with handmade products) are part of this group.

10- Manufacture of metal and alloy products: Products that are produced in a traditional way using hand tools and various metals (copper, silver, gold and iron) and alloys (brass and Warsaw) such as household utensils, knives, sugar crushers , Pen sharpener, locks, etc. are part of this group.

12- Masonry, stone engraving and stone mosaic: includes artifacts whose main raw materials are types of stones such as turquoise, marble, jade, black stone, white stone (alabaster), etc. and with the help of tools and various items carved or engraved in such a variety of dishes, pedestal lamps, picture frames, all kinds of jeweled and …

13 woodturning wood: woodturning, wood products manufacturing is the manner in which and by different means and Mainly with the turning machine, objects such as hookahs, cradles, lampshade bases and various utensils are made and polished.

14- Woodworking and joinery: It is a method of making wooden products, during which small wooden pieces prepared as veneers are glued to the wooden body by means of carpentry tools such as saws, graters, razors, saws, etc. And have been formed under pressure, and through this, all kinds of chocolates, cigarette butts, photo frames, etc. are produced and offered.

15-Woodcarving , woodcarving and lattice: Another method of producing wood products in which traditional designs and patterns are formed on high quality and durable wood using pens, hammers, grooves and other carpentry tools.

16- Mat weaving: Mat weaving, which includes bamboo weaving, pearl weaving, weaving weaving, cham weaving, basket weaving and weaving, is the same as weaving of cellulose (plant) fibers with the help of hands and simple hand tools. During it, various products such as mats, wicker tablecloths, baskets, utensils, etc. are produced and offered. Regarding weaving, it is necessary to mention that during weaving, in addition to vegetable fibers, dyed wool yarn is also used to create traditional patterns and designs.

17- Inlaying: A method of producing wood products, which uses the coating obtained by gluing small pieces of metals, bones and types of wood in traditional shapes and designs (mostly geometrically) and with the help of various tools and equipment, products such as types. Photo frames, jigsaw puzzles, chocolate bars, tables, chairs, etc. are made.

18- Mosaic work: drawing traditional designs and patterns on a wooden or ceramic background and emptying the inside of the design lines and filling the empty space with prepared wooden, ceramic, metal, shell and stone parts. Say.

19- Tiling: It is an industry with a history in which all kinds of tiles are made and polished using traditional designs and patterns for use in religious and historical buildings by molding clay and baking it in a kiln.

20- Tapestry work: The purpose of making various objects such as tea service, tang and also some ornaments using silver, gold and copper wires and with the help of simple metal tools and equipment such as handles, pliers, scissors, special oven and. .. is.

21-Enameling: Here, the purpose is to make a metal body, glaze, bake, paint and re-bake objects in the oven, all of which are done with the help of simple tools and equipment using original and traditional designs in the painting stage. Accept.

22- Making artifacts and art objects: Making delicate objects and tools in which the art factor is involved more than production techniques and includes miniature making, painting on shells, painting on leather, papier-m وché and gilding. 23- Making ornaments: Making and producing all kinds of local jewelry as well as all kinds of ornaments using gold, silver and all kinds of alloys.

24- Making other handicraft products: The purpose of making other handicraft products such as turquoise address (turquoise stamping) gilding on steel, all kinds of local dolls, bedding (ajideh and lathei) and masks, kites and decorative umbrellas with tools and Handicrafts are made and polished using traditional designs.

Iranian handcraft

List of types of handicrafts

Handicrafts, as mentioned, are part of the primary industries and because other industries can have very positive economic and social effects, including:

1- The role of handicrafts in raising employment,

2- The role of handicrafts in increasing per capita income,

3 – the role of crafts in national production,

(4) the role of crafts in the development of tourism and cultural exchanges,

5. the role of crafts in the development of exports. (2)

can be applied in the fields of innovation and market needs and preferences in The body of handicrafts breathed new life, and by introducing the youth to these fields, it ensured their permanence. Currently, according to the report of the Handicrafts Organization, 253 branches of traditional arts and handicrafts have been registered in the country, which are divided into the following branches in terms of the amount of activity:

a- Fields under production and active handicrafts,

B- Low-prosperity handicrafts,

c- Obsolete handicrafts.

A: Production and active fields include:
1- Glass cutting
2- Template glassmaking
3- Glass mosaic
4- Painting on glass
5- Fusion glass (fuse glass)
6- Silk weaving
7- Ihram weaving
8- Types of fabrics Traditional
knitting 9- Traditional knitting
10- Plus
11- Pen weaving (ribbon weaving)
12- Jajim weaving (Mashteh, Wave weaving)
13- Jim weaving
14- Night weaving tent
15- Chapri
16- Chafee weaving
17- Bag
18- Bath Series
19- Zari Series
20- Sachim weaving
21- Rug weaving
22- Headband weaving
23- Black tent weaving
24- Poetry weaving
25- Doubt weaving
26- Candle weaving
27-
Fart weaving 28- Gharaqi
29- Crochet weaving
30- Gezi weaving
31- Glimche (Metkazin)
32- Mutqal
33- Intervention weaving
34- Varis weaving
35- Horse weaving
36- Pouch weaving
37- Zillow
38- Embossed flower
carpet 39- Carpet weaving
40- Gabbeh weaving
41-
Double kilim 42- Embossed flower
kilim 43- Single
kilim 44- Musnad kilim
45- Mofresh
46- Local clothes
47- Bashlaq
48- Burqa
49- Pushin embroidery
50- Chogha
51- Local doll
52- Weave weaving
53- Weave embroidery
54-
Pen printing 55- Bat printing (batik)
56- Painting
pen 57- Painting on silk
58- Embroidered belts
59- Tafreshi embroidered
60- Turbafi with needle
61- Embroidered
net 62- Spring embroidery
63- Forty-piece embroidery (Khatami embroidery)
64- Border embroidery
65- Cream embroidery
66- Cream Sistan embroidery
67- Khos embroidery
68- Darvish embroidery
69- Button embroidery
70- Embroidery round
71- Ten one embroidery
72- Zark embroidery
73- Zogra embroidery
74- Background embroidery
75- Zenar embroidery 76-
Jour embroidery
77- Star embroidery
78- Hem Embroidery
79- Serafi embroidery
80- Sermeh embroidery
81- Coin embroidery
82- Stone embroidery
83- Needle embroidery
84- Baloch needlework 85-
Turkmen embroidery
86- Wine embroidery
87- Sun embroidery
88- Shell embroidery
89- Delicate embroidery
90- Wick embroidery
91- Crochet embroidery Rasht
92- Braid embroidery
93- Inscription embroidery
94- Kurdish embroidery
95- Low embroidery
96- Gabr embroidery (Zoroastrian embroidery)
97 -Glabtvn embroidered (coordinates)
98. embroidery of
99 wheat embroidered
100 S. Bee Embroidered
101 Embroidered Smayh
102 Embroidered Lachak
103 word Embroidered
104. embroidered velvet
105 Embroidered stud
106. embroidered pearls
107. embroidered mesh
108. double Embroidery
109- Crochet embroidery
110- Tapestry embroidery
111- Cotton embroidery
112- Bead weaving with needle
113- Bead embroidery
114- Tassel embroidery
115- Silver embroidery
116- Embroidery
117- Fittings 118-
Crochet Isfahan
119- Embroidery tape
120- Ajideh embroidery 121-
Pendant embroidery
122- Mirror embroidery
123- Raw silk embroidery
124- Silk embroidery Zari pattern
125- Ashrafi embroidery
126- Tear embroidery
127- Ilge embroidery (embroidery)
128- Bumpur fan
129- Badleh embroidery
130- Bukhara embroidery
131- Embossed embroidery
132- Blish embroidery (Kazakh embroidery) 133- Band
embroidery
134- Penne embroidery (dynasty embroidery)
135- Parivar embroidery
136- Embroidered sequins 137- Embroidered
cocoons 138-
Egg embroidered
139- Khorramhr making
140- Pottery with glazed painting 141-
Pottery with under glazed painting
Glazed pottery 142- (ceramic)
143 Pottery
144. The mosaic
145 Tiles Mqly
146 seven-color tile
147 Charoq – cantankerous
148 and saddle
149 leather painting
150- Steel Applications
151 Working whore
152- knife of
153 – Shoemaker weaving
154- engraving on metal
155- Davatgar
156- casting
157 jewelry (jewelry)
158- local ornaments
159- enshrine the
160 mark of
161 scrimshaw
162 dumplings Gary
163- Gregor weaving
164 copper
165 working on the metal lattice
166 Tapestry of
167 enamel window (net)
168 enamel house of
169 enamel inlaid
170- Enamel painting
171- Brick work
172- Mirror work
173- Application
174- Tile work (traditional)
175-
Bedding 176- Traditional wall painting
177- Bamboo weaving
178- Chiq weaving
179- Wood weaving volume
180- Mat weaving (mat weaving) )
181 seal of
182 woodturning
183 traditional instruments
184 fuel wood
185 Kpvrbafy
186- carving on wood
187 Chinese knot
, 188-mosaic
189- Pearls knitting (knitting purple)
190- wood lattice
191- wood mosaic
192 Inlaid mosaic
193- Inlaid
194- Joinery
195- Painting on wood
196- Marine handicrafts
197- Painting on oysters
198- Cutting precious and semi-precious stones
199- Stone (masonry)
200- Engraving on stone
201- Turning stone 202-
Turquoise
203- Sculpture with stone
204-
Inlaid stone
205- Mesh stone 206-
Mosaic stone 207- Mosaic work rock
208 illuminated
209- Tshyr
210 volumes of
211- calligraphy
212- traditional design
213- paper handy
214-painting (miniature)
215 tons of rag felt (Kpnk)
216 mat felt
217 felt hat

B- Low-prosperity handicrafts

1- Weaving (Ikat),
2- Abafafi,
3- Enamel tiles,
4- Engraving on leather,
5- Multiplication,
6- Warsaw making,
7- Slate cutting,
8- Trigger papier,
9- Flower and chicken painting ,
10- Lucky painting,
11- Gold weaving.
C- Obsolete handicrafts
1- Arm weaving
2- Pyramids
3- Burk weaving
4- Bottom
weaving 5- Curtain weaving
6- Cashmere weaving
7- Towel weaving
8- Shawl weaving
9- Wide weaving
10- Confectionery
11- Canvas weaving
12 – Velvet weaving (embossed flower velvet)
13- Salt weaving
14- Knotted (dental)
15- Golden tile
16- Fuel on leather
17- Leather mosaic
18- Armament making
19- Locksmithing
20- Lime cutting
21- Sash making
22- Embossing
23- Lithography on paper
24- Traditional binding
25- Segmental (paper cutting)
26- Coffee house painting

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