Termeh is a type of Persian (Iranian) handwoven cloth, produced primarily in the Isfahan province. Now the Yazd Termeh is the most beautiful and famous in the world. Yazd is the center of the design, producing and marketing of Termeh.Weaving termeh requires a good wool with long fibers. Termeh is woven by an expert with the assistance of a worker called a Goushvareh-kesh. Weaving termeh is a sensitive, careful, and time-consuming process; a good weaver can produce only 25 to 30 centimetres (10 to 12 in) in a day. The background colors used in termeh are jujube red, light red, green, orange and black. Termeh has been admired throughout history; Greek historians commented on the beauty of Persian weavings in the Achaemenian (532 B.C.), Ashkani (222 B.C.) and Sasanidae (226–641 A.D.) periods and the Chinese tourist Hoang Tesang admired termeh.
During the Safavid period (1502–1736 A.D.), zarbaf and termeh weaving techniques were significantly refined. Due to the difficulty of producing termeh and the advent of mechanized weaving, few factories remain in Iran that produce traditionally woven Termeh.
Cashmere weaving steps:
A) Raw materials used: The first step of cashmere weaving is to prepare its raw materials. Cashmere is usually woven from wool and silk, but white wool is the most common wool used in cashmere weaving because it can be any color you want. Dyed cashmere wool should be high quality and have long fibers that Iranian and Kashmir sheep have good soft and strong wool and is largely shiny and white and the best fleece in the area of the sides – abdomen – back of the neck and head and legs There is and usually these wools are used for cashmere weaving. How to prepare – spin and dye and weave wool in the 16th century AD in Iran was very advanced. The period of Shah Abbas Safavid can be considered as the peak and flourishing period of cashmere weaving industry, because Shah Abbas invited prominent designers from China and Armenia to Iran to teach their new art to Iranians, which is why cashmere was beautiful at that time. And found a special prominence.
B) Washing wool: After preparing the best wool, the first step is to clean the wool from the existing fat and pus and solution in it, which should be done before dyeing. Iranians usually cut the animal for 10 minutes before shearing the fleece. They are washed with water, then soaked in alkalis to separate fatty substances from the wool, and then washed several times with water to clean the impurities and make the wool shiny.
C) Wool bleaching: In Iran, two methods are used to bleach wool.
Method 1: The wool was spread in the meadow to become whiter during the day after absorbing the dew and evaporating it, and this was done in several steps.
Method 2: Use sulfur derivatives to bleach wool.
D) Fixing the color: After the wool has turned white enough, it is time to dye them, which is one of the most important steps in preparing wool for cashmere texture. Because dyes that are used directly do not have durability and stability, and Iranian dyers used materials called teeth to solve this problem. Tooth is a mineral chemical that increases the ability to absorb dye in wool. In order for the tooth to achieve its desired reaction in dyeing, it must be pre-purified. The most common teeth that were used in Iran are: white alum – tin – zinc – chlorine – lead and other sulfates which were minerals and mazooj and sumac leaves etc. which were plant materials.
E) Dyeing by natural and plant dyes: The color of Iranian cashmere is usually prepared from natural plants. This dye may be obtained from the roots, trunk, leaves, flowers, fruits or bark of plants. Because it is very difficult to preserve cashmere fabrics, they have been lost due to moisture and willow, and little information about their color remains.